The largest challenge to conducting empirical education into dowry ‘s the lack otherwise inadequacy of data

dos.dos Complications with established analysis

As dowry was legally banned for the India and you may Bangladesh, anyone usually think twice to inform you real dowry amounts. The high quality matter toward dowry from the Indian dataset requires throughout the community-based dowry. Such as for example, brand new Asia Person Invention Survey asks “Fundamentally in your neighborhood to have children for example your personal, do you know the brand of points that are provided as merchandise at the time of the daughter’s relationships?” A residential district-depending dowry is not necessarily the identical to an individual dowry, that’s paid down because of the bride’s mothers during marriage. Rather, issue regarding dowry lets only a binary respond to, i.e., although an optimistic number of dowry is actually paid down (e.grams., Survey with the Reputation of women and you may Fertility in both Asia and you can Pakistan). A digital answer, needless to say, does not render much more info. Standard out of whether or not an optimistic dowry count is provided corresponds in order to, that will be largely said from the, cultural, spiritual, and you will caste backgrounds within the South Asia.

Since the dowry isn’t lawfully prohibited in Pakistan, the total amount myself repaid by feminine respondent’s mothers should be expected instead of booking within the an effective Pakistani dataset including the Pakistan Outlying Family Questionnaire. No matter if Pakistani interviewees may not intentionally cover genuine details about dowry techniques, the new questionnaire may still incorporate recall problems because the participants must recall the fresh new dowry number paid off of the their moms and dads in the past. Figure 1a plots of land the latest predict level of genuine dowry thinking mentioned for the Pakistani Rupees inside 2004 on to relationships seasons playing with investigation out-of the newest Pakistan Rural Family Survey. Given that consensus is the fact real dowry numbers is actually growing, or at least exhibit a non-declining pattern, the brand new contour means all round desire regarding recall errors. This means that, the fresh new prolonged the latest pit amongst the interviewees’ wedding together with remember go out, a lot more likely he could be to overestimate this new dowry amount.

Relationships anywhere between ladies ounts. New line suggests the newest predicted actual amount of dowry regressed into the ladies’ marriage year. The fresh shaded town shows 95% trust interval of one’s predicted quantity of dowry. The information resources of (a) and you may (b) are Pakistan Rural Home Questionnaire 2004, therefore the rural home questionnaire used of the blogger when you look at the 2013, correspondingly

step 3 Study

With the good the degree, studies obtained contained in this studies are the very first to take on explicitly a broad habit of overestimate an amount repaid lengthy before. Similar to the services from previously gathered analysis, ours also are retrospective; although not, based on so it tendency, we particularly used certain services to attenuate questionnaire keep in mind errors. Such as, i wanted the level of each other neighborhood-situated dowry (non-retrospective) and personal dowry count paid back during the latest respondent’s relationships (retrospective). As the Pakistani dowry consists of silver/jewelry, dresses, seats, cooking utensils, and stuff like that, we queried dowry quantity because of the item. Whenever we considered a respondent’s overestimation of one’s dowry amount, particularly in your situation regarding a marriage that happened a long-time in the past, due to the fact dowry was showed, we can and you may performed glance at this type of numbers having people who went to the latest service. For that reason, all of our analysis on predict genuine degrees of dowry (Fig. 1b) do not tell you people coming down pattern, on the other hand having people said in Fig. 1a.

step three.step 1 Survey

When conducting our survey between , we intended to capture the heterogeneous aspects of the Punjab province in Pakistan. We divided Punjab (36 districts) into five regions: Pothohar (or North), Central, East, West, and South Punjab. Climate, culture (including marriage/inheritance practices), and socioeconomic conditions differ across regions but are similar within each region. We randomly selected one district from each region, namely, Rawalpindi, Mandi Bahauddin, Narowal, Muzaffargarh, and Bahawalnagar (Fig. 2). We used the district census for 1998–1999, the latest census available in Pakistan as of 2013, to randomly select six villages in rural areas in each of the five districts. We restricted sampling villages to those with a population of at least 1000 at the time of the census. In each village, we selected 22 households, following a stratified random sampling methodology. First, with assistance from the village chief, we made a list of households in the village and categorized them into a stratum. The strata are kammees Footnote 10 (i.e., traditional service or lower caste, with annual income ? PKR 200,000, > PKR 200,000) and zamindars (i.e., landowning farmers with land 12.5 acres). Eligible households in our survey are defined as those with an economically active husband and wife aged 15–65. Second, we performed stratified random sampling so that the share of each stratum in our sample corresponds to the share of each stratum of the village population (= households).